Three Hadham fabrics which achieved more than local distribution are included here and defined as Oxidised ware, Reduced ware 1 and Reduced ware 2.
All three fabrics have essentially the same clay body containing a well-sorted suite of inclusions, normally <0.1mm, dominated by abundant rounded and subrounded quartz in a micaceous matrix containing silver or occasionally gold mica. Red-brown and black iron-rich grains are common, and the mixture of this and the quartz leads to the distinctive ‘salt-and-pepper’ appearance of the fabric, particularly in the Oxidised ware. Sparse matrix-coloured clay pellets, up to 2.0mm, can be seen in all three fabrics. All the sherds have an irregular fracture but they vary from hard to soft, depending on their preservation, and as a result they may have a smooth to powdery surface.
The principal observable difference is between Reduced ware 2 and the other two fabrics; although the main inclusion fraction is of similar size in all three, Oxidised ware and Reduced ware 1 incorporate a wider range of variability.
All the samples share a well-sorted groundmass (0.05–0.15mm) in a sparsely micaceous (muscovite) matrix. Within these parameters, quartz is common to abundant, flint common to sparse; opaques, feldspar and accessory minerals rare. Glauconitic pellets can also be identified. Occasional inclusions measure to 0.5mm and comprise quartz (sometimes polycrystalline), clay pellets and opaques (sometimes quartz rich).
Production is known from unpublished kilns at Bromley Hall Farm in Wickham Spring Field, Little Hadham excavated by Bernard Barr. Mortaria were found in association with a single kiln.
Colchester Museums; Harlow Museum; Hertford Museum; Saffron Walden Museum
Darling, M J, 1993 The Roman pottery, in Caister-on-Sea: excavations by Charles Green 1951–1955 (M Darling with D Gurney) East Anglian Archaeol 60, 153–218
Going, C J, 1987 The mansio and other sites in the south-east sector of Caesaromagus: the Roman pottery, CBA Res Rep 62/Chelmsford Archaeol Trust Rep 3.2
Going, C J, & Ford, B, 1988 Romano-British pottery, in Excavations at Great Dunmow, Essex: a Romano-British small town in the Trinovantian civitas (N P Wickenden), East Anglian Archaeol 41, 60–76
Harden, D, & Green, C, 1978 A late Roman grave-group from the Minories, Aldgate, in Collectanea Londiniensia. Studies in London archaeology and history presented to Ralph Merrifield (eds J Bird, H Chapman & J Clark), London Middlesex Archaeol Soc Spec Paper 2, 163–75
Johnson, S, 1983 Burgh Castle excavations by Charles Green 1958–61, East Anglian Archaeol 20
Orton, C, 1977 The pottery, in Excavations at Angel Court, Walbrook, 1974 (T R Blurton), Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 28, 30–53
Rodwell, W J, 1982 (1983) The production and distribution of pottery and tiles in the territory of the Trinovantes, Essex Archaeol Hist 14, 15–76
Wallace, C & Horsley, K, 2004 The late Iron Age and Roman pottery, in Excavations at Stansted Airport, 1986-91. Vol 1: Prehistoric and Romano-British (R Havis & H Brooks), East Anglian Archaeol 107, 285-–312
This fabric is typically orange-brown (2.5YR 6/8–5/8) or red-brown (10R 6/8), occasionally with a darker – towards purple – (10R 4/3) core. Where intact, the external surface is burnished in narrow horizontal bands, often alternating with unburnished bands (although not on mortaria). The industry is typified by small and large bowl-jars (Going 1987, E2–4, 6), dishes, imitations of Dragendorff 38 bowls, mortaria and flagons. A wide range of other forms was also produced, including the less common but distinctive pedestal-base jars and face pots. Although some of these forms overlap with those produced by the Oxford industry, the combinations of ‘Romano-Saxon’ bosses, dimples and grooves which figure prominently on the bowl-jars are diagnostic.
In this variant, the quartz may occasionally range up to 0.5mm. Mortaria were produced in this fabric and in our sample trituration grits are abundant well-sorted translucent quartz, mostly 1.5–2.0mm but ranging between 0.8–2.5mm, and occasional fragments of sandstone, 2.0–3.0mm. The trituration grits are not dissimilar to those utilised by the Oxford industry, but as vessels outside the collection indicate, often include occasional flint and/or orange-brown material. It is on the finest textured fabrics that Hadham trituration grits are most likely to be restricted to quartz and may, like the Oxford industry, sometimes be pink in colour. The Hadham trituration grits can also be confused with other products from East Anglia (K Hartley, pers comm).
Sparse trituration grits (1.0–1.7mm) are composed primarily of monocrystalline and polycrystalline quartz and quartzite, with rare flint, siliceous sandstone, quartz-rich clay pellets (possibly not trituration grits) and opaque inclusions also identified.
English Heritage; Essex County Council, Chelmsford; Museum of London
This fabric is grey (7/0–4/0), usually with a core in a contrasting shade of grey. Our sherds may be slightly abraded and, as a result, soft with a powdery surface. Generally however they are hard and smooth with an irregular fracture. Dishes and bowl-jars were the most commonly produced forms in this fabric.
Samples of this fabric are identical to the Oxidised ware.
Our sample contains some poorly mixed clay, with occasional clay pellets and iron-rich opaques to c 0.8mm.
English Heritage; Essex County Council, Chelmsford
The fabric is grey (6/0–5/0), often brownish (eg 2.5Y 6/2) or red-brown (eg 2.5YR 6/4–5/4), sometimes with a paler core. Surfaces are burnished to a slightly lustrous, smooth, deep and even black. Vessels are primarily black-burnished ware forms. Our samples are hard and smooth with an irregular fracture.
This fabric gives the impression of being slightly finer than the other two, since the sorting of the quartz is better and normally restricted to grains measuring <0.1mm.
Like Reduced ware 1, this sample contains large opaques, some of which are quartz rich.
Essex County Council, Chelmsford