South Carlton was a production centre for colourcoated and other specialist wares. Cream mortaria, ring-neck flagons, jugs, vessels with red painted decoration and colour-coated – particularly roughcast – beakers were produced. Both the colour-coated fabric and the white ware mortaria are included here, with mortaria judged to have been the most common product with the widest distribution.
Both the colour-coated and white ware fabrics are pale in colour and share a similar texture.
The fabric of these variants is united by an isotropic clay matrix with common silt-sized inclusions. The groundmass is micaceous, although not readily visible in all samples, and muscovite predominates. Opaques (<0.1mm) are regularly present, while the larger inclusions vary between different samples and are described below.
Production at South Carlton is known from two to three kilns (Darling 1977, 34; Webster 1944).
Lincoln City and County Museum
Lincoln City and County Museum
Darling, M J, 1977a Excursus on the Swanpool/Rookery Lane kiln complex at Lincoln, in A group of late Roman pottery from Lincoln, CBA for Lincoln Archaeol Trust Monogr Ser XVI–1, 32–7
Hartley, K F, & Richards, E E, 1965 Spectrographic analysis of some Romano-British mortaria, Bull Institute Archaeol 5, 25–43
Webster, G, 1944 A Roman pottery at South Carlton, Lincolnshire, Antiq J 24, 129–43
Generally this fabric ranges from pure white, through cream to browns and pale red-browns (5YR 7/6–7/8, 7.5YR 7/6), with cream shades the most common. The colour coat is usually red-brown (2.5YR 5/6–4/6) or khaki (10YR 5/4–4/4), the latter of which is most common at the kiln site (M Darling, pers comm). Our sample is white (10YR 8/1) with patchy orange-brown (2.5YR 5/4) slipped surfaces. It is hard with a smooth fracture and smooth surfaces, which are wiped.
Our sample has a fine silty matrix, containing generally well-sorted common quartz (0.1-0.3mm), sparse red and red-brown iron-rich grains to 0.3mm, and fine silver mica. The outer surface is roughcast with ill-sorted particles of clay ranging between 0.5–3.5mm, but normally 0.5–1.0mm.
This sample contains rare larger inclusions of both monocrystalline and polycrystalline quartz to c 1.0mm. Larger quartz- and iron-rich clay pellets and quartz-free clay pellets are also present (<1.5mm).
A cream (10YR 8/2) clay, occasionally with a very pale pink (2.5YR 7/3) core. Surfaces are covered with a thin, patchy cream (10YR 7/6) to dull orange (7.5YR 7/4) self slip. The fabric is hard with a an irregular fracture and smooth feel.
The matrix is similar to that described above for the colour-coated ware, while the sorting and composition is variable. One sample contains essentially no inclusions apart from red and red-brown iron-rich grains (<0.5mm); a second is coarser with common quartz and iron-rich grains, and some fine gold mica. Sparse grey rock fragments (?stray trituration grits), measuring 1.0–2.0mm, and feldspar are occasionally present. Trituration grits fall between 2.0–4.0mm and comprise common ill-sorted quartz, and sparse grey and red-brown rocks, black argillaceous grains and flint.
Two samples were examined, one of which is virtually identical to that described for colour-coated wares. The second is coarser, containing a somewhat expanded suite of inclusions in greater quantity: quartz (including polycrystalline), flint, quartzite, siltstone and limestone (almost entirely post-depositional) are all present and measure <2.0mm. Trituration grits are primarily quartz, siltstone and sandstone (both ferruginous and siliceous), with less polycrystalline quartz, quartzite and flint, normally measuring c 1.0–3.0mm. Rare large opaques also occur in the same size range as the trituration grits.